You already know what a starter solenoid is. If you don’t, then the thing basically helps in activating the starter motor that resides inside the internal combustion engine. And that mechanism already tells a lot about the importance of this part for any vehicle.
To hook up a starter solenoid on a Ford, you need to work with 3 sometimes 4 wires. The entire process of hooking up will also depend on whether it’s the factory version or an aftermarket replacement.
Also, proper wiring can be difficult to do without a visual demonstration. So having a ford starter solenoid wiring diagram will help, and we’ve bought you one today in this guide. We’ll cover a lot of things for starter solenoid wiring as well. Enjoy!
4 Pole Ford Starter Solenoid Wiring Diagram & Color Codes!
Being one of the most essential components that help start the truck, you should know how it looks and where the pins connect. Now before that you actually need to brush up some basics on starter solenoid.
Starter Solenoid & Starter Motor!
A tiny cylinder shape part with a large cylinder shape component, that’s what the duo of stater solenoid and motor looks like.
According To ETechNog
“A starter solenoid is nothing but an electromagnetic switch that works on the principle of electromagnetism.”
For input and output, two contacts are present, and these are used for transferring high current. Using a magnetic coil, the connections are controlled for both of the contacts.
The solenoid’s output terminal is attached with the starter motor, the device that needs to keep rotation for engine cranking.
The Ford Starter Solenoid Wiring Diagram
Now that you know about these main protagonists, take a look at the Ford 4 pole starter solenoid wiring diagram below to know the whole thing.
Details Of 4 Terminal Starter Solenoid Wiring Diagram
In the above illustration, you’ll locate the 4 pins (poles or terminals) in the starter solenoid. And these have a meaning which are:
- ‘1’ refers to the Battery Terminal.
- ‘2’ refers to the Starter Terminal.
- ‘3’ refers to the S aka Start Terminal.
- ‘4’ refers to the I aka Ignition Terminal.
- ‘R’ refers to the Regulator or Rectifier Terminal.
- ‘C’ refers to the COM or Common Marked Terminal.
- ‘S’ refers to the Starter Control Out Terminal.
- ‘B’ refers to the Battery Terminal.
These 4 terminals use different wiring system so that each of them operates and get the signal. We will suggest you check the given Ford starter solenoid wiring color code to understand the above picture if you find it hard to figure out.
|Terminals Type||Wire Color|
|Pin 3||Blue & Red Stripe|
Understand The Working Of Ford Starter Solenoid Wiring
It’s pretty essential to know the overall operation of the starter solenoid since it involves other components which need a good explanation. In case you are lost and want to know more about the working, then this segment is just for you.
Terminal 1 Wiring
The 1 terminal connects to the positive red (+) side of the battery through the red wire. It helps get the power from a battery and deliver it to other existing connectors to run.
Terminal 2 Wiring
The starter solenoid 2nd terminal fits to the Direct Drive Starter using the black wire. It helps transfer data to the Starter.
Terminal 3 Wiring
The S terminal (3rd one) simply connects directly to the Neutral Start Switch using the blue and red strip wire. It later connects to the Key (Ignition) Switch ‘S’ pin.
FYI, the Key Switch offers power to it and other contacts through the starter to activate the solenoid. The ‘B’ terminal of the Key Switch directly fits the battery positive side using the yellow wire.
Terminal 4 Wiring
The Ford starter solenoid I terminal (4th one) fits the Ignition Coil part using the brown color wire. It uses a resistor in the PPC (Primary Power Circuit) which connects to the coil causing the voltage of the truck to decrease.
When you place the key on the ignition key and switch to ON mode, this terminal receives the 12 volts and shifts it to the coil through the wire that wakes the engine on.
How To Do Ford Starter Solenoid Wiring?
After getting a complete insight into the wiring diagram, now you will find the procedure much simpler. This part is a very basic component of the entire start system.
And it’s not something you have to be a wiring genius to understand. In fact, with little carefulness, it’s super easy to conduct and you can simply skip spending money that would have been necessary otherwise to hire a professional.
Also, there are two designs that are common with starter solenoid wiring. But in both of them, you need to work with 4 wires typically. Both physical configurations however work pretty much the same.
But the later style of a solenoid is known to be much more solid than the early style of a solenoid.
The early style comes with a bracket mounting mechanism and is a 12-volt version. Bracket configurations can be angled or flat with the old style. While the newer solenoid configuration comes with a mounting base that is flat. Basically, to make the solenoid bigger and better than before.
Here’s Everything About The Ford Solenoid Wiring To Keep In Mind
- Ensure the solenoid is grounded properly. And to do that you want to check both sides bracket of coil mounting. The base bracket acts as the solenoid ground.
These need to be secured properly and also clean beforehand. Also, if the screws come loose here, start-related issues appear a lot.
For Your Information – If you are facing start related issue due to the loose screws of the unit, try a single ground wire for running right to the base. And this will instantly take over the failure.
- You need to connect the battery and any other type of power connections onto a terminal that is on the same side as the start terminal.
- Then wire the starter motor to the terminal on another side, which is also the same side that has the I terminal.
- The start terminal or also known as the S terminal will connect with the ignition switch. And the I terminal needs to hook up with the coil of a vehicle that comes with resistors.
It’s seen in the aftermarket replacement units. A few will not have this terminal. And in that case, it’s just a 3 wire hook-up job.
Having Ford Starter Solenoid Issues – Find & Fix!
If you are experiencing any ford starter problems, then the starter solenoid is the first component to doubt. And it sometimes is due to poor wiring but there can be other reasons as well.
Let’s go through some symptoms of a bad starter solenoid and you can check whether that’s what you are facing issues with or not. Here’s a chart to help:
|Action||Reaction||What Does It Means?|
|You Turn The Key To Start Position.||Absolutely nothing happens.|
There’s a single click sound that is possibly coming from underneath the vehicle or engine compartment.
A continuous clicking sound is heard.
Ignition is failing to engage, and it could be due to several reasons including a bad starter solenoid.
Some components inside are not allowing the solenoid to engage but it is trying to. Possibly because the components are stuck or have gone bad.
Mostly it is because of a dead battery. It can also be due to a low voltage battery, and a bad solenoid can make the battery go that low because of failure in creating enough electrical contact inside. Hence the battery is not able to provide for engine start.
|You Didn’t Turn The Key to Start Position||The engine starts on its own.||This is a very rare problem that needs an immediate fix. Most probably, the solenoid has gone bad completely.|
|You Let Go Of The Key||The starter fails to disengage after being engaged.||The starter is at risk of severe damage due to a bad solenoid.|
|You Try To Start||Sometimes it starts, sometimes it does not.||The starter is gradually failing, hence showing intermittent functioning.|
Now there are also some cases, where it seems like one of the symptoms of a bad starter solenoid, but it’s actually another component having problems. Such as:
- The starter circuit has a blown fuse and causing a no-start issue.
- The solenoid is fine, but its wiring is having problems. Either because the wiring was not done properly or due to corrosion taking over it. In case of improper wiring, following a 4 pole starter solenoid wiring diagram can help. For the other case, consider replacing or cleaning the dirty wires. It can also be the wires that go through it the battery.
- The battery will fail to start the engine if the alternator has gone bad.
Blown Fuse Again & Again – Bad Solenoid or Bad Ignition Switch
This can be a very complicated scenario where you don’t have an idea of why the fuse is constantly blowing up. You guess it’s the solenoid, but the ignition switch also seems to be a potential culprit. How do you find out?
Such issue often happens during trying to get the engine start up.
If the ford is sitting for quite long and the battery is already pretty dead, then trying to start it may make you discover a smoking, hot, and almost melting solenoid.
In such a scene you need to replace the solenoid of course. And consider replacing the wiring, starter, and battery cables as well. You want to put fuses for all the wiring associated.
One thing that’s super important here is to make sure the grounds are good. And the problem should solve, and the engine should start.
But if you have a problematic starter then even after starting the vehicle it will not function properly. And so, you need to get the old starter out and place a new one with a shim if possible. Due to the shim, you should not face any hanging up.
However, if the fuse is blown, this won’t be enough as well. You will need to replace the fuse and of course, get a suitable size for the swap.
Now at this point, the problem should stop and your vehicle will start as normal. However, if the fuse keeps blowing, then it might not be simply a case of a bad ignition switch or a damaged starter solenoid. It could be due to the wiring faults.
You need to check what wire gauge you are using and depending on that pick a fuse size suitable. Having a look at what wire is running where and double-checking if it’s proper is also important.
A multimeter can really help to find out if there’s the power to anything at all or not.
Some noobs to this topic can also mistakenly have the solenoid upside down. That can lead to backward wiring. Hence the issue.
How To Bypass & Check The Starter Solenoid?
You can use this procedure given below to check both the solenoid and starter motor for any problem. You need an insulated screwdriver for bypassing the solenoid.
- Look for two terminals, the control terminal, and the starter motor terminal. The one connects with the ignition switch wire and the other connects the solenoid to the starter motor.
- Use the screwdriver and short the terminals. You need to put the metal blade part right across the metal terminals. This will trigger a direct connection between the starter motor and the ignition switch.
- Ask a friend to turn on the ignition for you.
- Now the solenoid is bypassed, so the engine is supposed to not start. However, there’s little power available that should make the starter motor run at a low speed.
- Observe the sound that the motor is making.
- Humming sound means the solenoid is problematic, but the motor is fine.
- Chopping sound means the starter motor is defective.
- No start/sound of the motor means it is defective.
And there you have it!
If you want to do some further diagnosing, these are the steps to follow:
- Get a multimeter or voltmeter. And then use it for testing the battery. Throughout the engine cranking, you will notice some drop in voltage. However, if there’s not even the least voltage present to crank the engine, then the battery is too weak.
- You can also check if the solenoid is receiving power properly. Sometimes due to control circuit-associated issues, there’s no current passed to the solenoid and hence further problems arise.
- You also need to do electrical continuity or resistance test. Use a multimeter to test the solenoid for this.
Further Observation of Ford Starter Solenoid
You need to have the ford engine on during the observation. So, ask a friend to turn the ignition and at the same time, you need to look at the starter that is under the hood. It should be close to the battery.
If you notice that there’s no spinning at all, then one out of two problems could be happening
- 1st case – Insufficient power running toward the starter solenoid.
- 2nd case – Power is reaching just the solenoid but not the motor.
To determine which one exactly is the reason, you need to turn the interior lights on. And then start the vehicle again.
- If the lights don’t dim and there’s no spin in the starter, then it’s the 1st case. A replacement of the ignition switch, solenoid, transmission safety switch, or starter relay could be necessary. It can also be damaged wiring.
- If the lights are dimming when you do the test, the cables of the battery or the battery itself can be faulty. And so, it may lead to 2nd case.
Now if the starter is spinning but the dash is having operational fault causing start-up issues, then these could be the reasons:
- The starter is defective.
- Cluster failure,
- Poor connection-related trouble.
You should check the starter when it’s spinning to determine if there’s power or not. And also check the battery.
If the Ford starter is failing to disengage then it could be due to:
- Stuck starter solenoid.
- Power short on the wire to the solenoid.
You need to check the wire and replace it if that’s the problem. Otherwise, the solenoid becomes responsible, and you need to basically change it with a new one. It can also be due to ignition switch failure or a faulty stater.
If there’s a continuous clicking noise, then you need to:
- Look for loose connections to the starter.
- Do a battery load test.
Now for the later test, one can also use an alternative way of meaning the voltage of the battery and then dropping the voltage to test on a tiny wire of the starter.
We have already discussed that before. You want to make sure the battery is not a problem, and then replace the starter.
However, starter-related issues are not easy to solve. And so, you may need further assistance from an expert. There are certain tools that are necessary for the handling as well. So, it’s best to contact an expert and get a full mechanical insight if you can afford the repair cost.
Solving Specifically Wiring Related Issues
The whole purpose of checking a ford 4 pole starter solenoid wiring diagram is often to find out whether there’s an error in the wiring that needs addressing for certain starter solenoid issues that you could be facing.
Bad wiring is one of the main reasons why starter solenoid dies sooner. Old wiring can cause serious trouble especially if the vehicle goes through pretty rough usage.
If this is an old ford that you just bought from someone, then it is also possible the previous owner has messed up with the wiring somehow. Again, the ford starter wiring diagram can help you find that.
It can also happen while replacing the solenoid. During installation, the connection of wiring being loose is a big no. Bad connection due to problematic wiring can invite malfunctions.
Also, battery wires can catch corrosion with passing time. And at some point, the wires stop passing electricity. This is why it is very important that users occasionally do some maintenance. And cleaning the rust that builds up on terminals should be an included step.
How To Replace Ford Starter Solenoid?
- Start by understanding how to safely access the battery, ignition, and transmission as those are necessary for replacing the solenoid. Without proper knowledge here, you may end up damaging the components.
- Make sure to read the provided service manual by Ford thoroughly as well. It is the best map of all the engine components that you want to study to find out which wire is there for what connection. Mistakenly disconnecting any other irrelevant wire can invite big trouble.
- Next, you want to disconnect the battery terminals.
- Then carefully remove the old, damaged solenoid starter.
- Now place the new solenoid in the exact location. Use the needed cables for fitting the solenoid properly.
- Turn the ignition on as well as the interior lights to check the solenoid. If the lights don’t dim or turn off and the Ford starts as normal, take the vehicle for a ride.
- After riding for a while, once the engine is hot, return to the driveway and turn it off. Finally, restart the Ford and if there are no issues then you successfully replaced the solenoid, and it’s all set to work.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Does it matter which wire goes where on a Ford solenoid?
Of course, it matters! You want to do the wiring properly so that the solenoid is connected to all the elements right for proper functioning.
What happens if you hook up a starter backward?
If you reverse the wires, then the starters will basically do field alteration. And this will lead the motor to spin in a similar direction.
What wires connect to a starter solenoid?
A starter control wire, positive battery cable, and a starter motor thick wires are connected to a starter solenoid.
What are the two small terminals on a starter solenoid?
The two small terminals on a starter solenoid are called S terminal and R or I terminals. These are typically iron bolts.
Why does a vehicle need a starter solenoid?
A vehicle needs a starter solenoid so that a large current can work. This is not possible with the small size ignition switch alone.
And that’s all! You have the ford starter solenoid wiring diagram, a procedure to try wiring yourself, symptoms to the most likely to happen issues of a starter solenoid, fix, repair, replacement, and basically everything on this matter.
Ford solenoids are well known for being amazing starters in the industry. However, that does not make it any less prone to malfunctions due to constant usage and so many reasons. It could get upsetting if the car stays stuck in the driveway instead of running free on the road.
We hope you are now too good to go for finding a solution to whatever issue you might be facing.
However, it’s never a bad idea to contact a professional (ASE-certified mechanics) if things seem too confusing. They will handle the issue for you and find a specific suitable solution quicker.
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